Dragon’s Breath Pepper Guide: Heat, Flavor, Uses

What are Dragon’s Breath peppers?

There are super-hot peppers, then there are super-hot, mind blowing, out of this world peppers. The Dragon’s Breath pepper is arguably now the king of the latter. With a reported peak heat of 2.48 million Scoville heat units, the Dragon’s Breath pepper (named for the symbol of Wales – the Welsh dragon) eclipses the likes of the Komodo Dragon and Carolina Reaper peppers (the current hottest pepper in the world according to the Guinness Book of World Records). This is military-grade heat, and the Dragon’s Breath is currently not for commercial consumption. Instead, it was developed in part for consideration as a natural topical anesthetic for those allergic to typical anesthetics used by hospitals.

dragons breath pepper
Dragon’s Breath are tiny chilies, making the extreme heat within a true surprise

Table of Contents

Dragon’s Breath pepper fast facts

Scoville heat units (SHU)~2,480,000
Median heat (SHU)N/D
Jalapeño reference point310 to 992 times hotter
Capsicum speciesChinense
OriginUnited Kingdom
SizeApproximately 1/2 inches long, wrinkled, pock-marked, stinger (at times)
FlavorSweet, Fruity

How hot is the Dragon’s Breath pepper?

We base the below on the reported peak heat of the Dragon’s Breath, as little has been reported on its heat range. For instance Carolina Reaper’s range from 1.4 to 2.2 million SHU (with an average of 1.6 million SHU), depending on the plant, the soil, and the conditions.

Just looking at the Dragon’s Breath pepper’s Scoville heat rating is numbing in its own right. Based on the reported peak of 2.48 million Scoville heat units, this chili has the potential for no doubt military grade heat – military-grade pepper sprays start at 2 million SHU. That should be enough of a warning that this is a chili pepper from a different earth scorching world.

But let’s compare it to some of the top chilies on the pepper scale to really put this in perspective. Against our jalapeño reference point, the Dragon’s Breath’s peak heat weighs in from 310 to 992 times hotter, depending on the jalapeño chosen. Compared to a habanero (for many, the most extreme chili used for mainstream culinary purposes), the Dragon’s Breath is 7 to 24 times hotter. And against the super-hot ghost pepper (a popular choice for extreme eaters), the Dragon’s Breath is easily 2 to 3 times hotter.

Versus the Carolina Reaper, the Dragon’s Breath chili’s peak heat can nearly double the heat of the mildest possible Carolina Reaper (1.4 million SHU), and even versus the hottest possible Reaper (2.2 million SHU), the Dragon’s Breath still has 280,000 Scoville heat units on it, or an entire habanero pepper’s worth of heat more.

Is the Dragon’s Breath pepper the hottest pepper in the world?

According to initial tests…maybe. The Dragon’s Breath pepper has been submitted to the Guinness Book of World Records for consideration as the hottest pepper in the world. But little is currently known on the heat range of this chili pepper, as well as its overall stability. Time will tell where the Dragon’s Breath officially falls.

How is there medicinal value to a pepper this hot?

The Dragon’s Breath was grown during a test of a special plant food developed by Nottingham Trent University, as part of their efforts to develop natural anesthetics (capsaicin being one) useful for those allergic to typical medical anesthetics. And it’s certainly a lovely mix of beauty and scientific value in the Dragon’s Breath pepper.

Medicinally, it all comes down to the chemical compound in all hot peppers – capsaicin. Capsaicin is what provides the heat sensation of chili peppers further down the pepper scale that’s so beloved by many. Another effect of capsaicin is that it can have a numbing effect on the tissue on which it’s placed (hence the amount of pain-relieving over-the-counter creams made with capsaicin).

What do they look like?

One word – unassuming. According to early photos, these are tiny chilies (approximately 1/2 inch in size), grown actually in part to be aesthetically pleasing enough to compete in the Chelsea Flower Show. The plant is owned by Bob and Neal Price of Chillibobs and grown by Mike Smith, owner of Tom Smith’s Plants, with an eye to the aesthetics as well as the heat.

The Dragon’s Breath are wrinkled and pocked like other super-hot peppers, and they appear to have a scorpion-like tail that does hint at the extreme heat that lies within. Yet, there’s a delicateness to the chili that’s quite beautiful.

Cooking with Dragon’s Breath peppers

Like with other super-hot chilies, the Dragon’s Breath is not an ingredient that most will turn to in the kitchen. It’s just too hot. In fact, one sliver of this pepper could heat up multiple pots of soup in one go. That’s how much capsaicin is here. If you do decide to grow these chilies yourself, or happen to come across some pods, you’ll typically find the most use for this pepper within extreme hot sauces.

More cooking tips:

  • Like with any super-hot, extreme caution needs to be taken in the handling. Even holding a Dragon’s Breath chili whole and uncut with your uncovered hands can lead to severe chili burn. Wear kitchen gloves, goggles, and even a mask in the handling, especially when cutting into the fruit.
  • Know how to treat chili burn prior to handling. The potential for extreme pain is high here. Before you even begin handling a Dragon’s Breath, read our post on treating chili burn (hint: keep milk around.) Also read our article on treating the burn in your eye area, as that can be especially painful (and all it takes is one mistaken rub of an eye.)
  • Look to Carolina Reaper or ghost pepper recipes to see what’s possible. They are both among the most popular super-hots, so there are many recipes out there featuring these extreme fruits. Just note the size difference in the pods (the Dragon’s Breath is much smaller than both.) And note the heat difference (as the Dragon’s Breath can eclipse both.) You’ll want to be conservative to start, then add more as you’d like.

Where can you buy Dragon’s Breath peppers?

You can purchase Dragon’s Breath pepper seeds online, but don’t expect to find them at your local gardening center. This is not a chili pepper being cultivated for much commercial use, so it’s limited to specialty shops. For most, it’s just too hot for consumption. Even among extreme eaters, this is another world of heat.

  • The Hot Pepper List: This is just one of over 150 chilies we profile on our list. Filter by heat, flavor, use, origin, and more.
  • Meet The Hottest Peppers In The World: Want to see what other chilies make the cut for the extreme of the extreme?
  • Our Hot Sauce Rankings: We’ve ranked over 100 hot sauces to help you find your new favorite! Filter by chilies used, crafter city, and heat level.

UPDATE NOTICE: This post was updated on April 26, 2022 to include new content.
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I live in Panama. I received some Dragons Breath seed from my friend in the USA. The seed was marked Dragons Breath-Midwest ChiliHeads. I only planted one at the end of Jan 2020. Live in a tropical climate. I had some hard times with the new seedling. It looked great at first but then began to wilt. It sulked for a long time and did not grow. I transplanted it into a larger 6 gallon pot. I had to put the plant in the shade and protect it from windy conditions also. Eventually the plant began to grow again. Today,… Read more »

chilihead 101

no pepper will kill you… you would need to eat about 3 ibs of scorpion pepper powder for the capsaicin to even harm you.
though this little devil may make you wish you were 🙂


dont eat one.

if you do do so at your own risk


Shawn C

Pepper X by Ed Curry is the hottest pepper in the world. 3.18 Million SHU…. It’s like a full rage beatdown for your mouth.